How To Make Dashi だし 作り方

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How To Make Dashi | Easy Japanese Recipes at JustOneCookbook.com

Today’s recipe is back to the basics.  When you decide to make Japanese food, you will realize that a lot of recipes require dashi.  With this unfamiliar ingredient, you may think it’s not easy to cook Japanese food.  However, it’s very simple, quick and easy to make dashi from scratch, and you will be well equipped to make more delicious Japanese food after this post (I hope!).

Dashi is Japanese stock, and it is a fundamental ingredient in many Japanese dishes.  Dashi is made from kombu (kelp), bonito flakes (dried and smoked skipjack tuna that is shaved into thin flakes), sardine (iriko or niboshi), or a combination of all or two of them.  Dashi provides great umami from all these ingredients and you don’t need to season the food much if you have good dashi.

How To Make Dashi | Easy Japanese Recipes at JustOneCookbook.com

The dashi that I’m sharing today is the most common seafood-based stock called Awase Dashi: a combination of kombu and bonito flakes (katsuobushi).  The base is Kombu Dashi, and by adding smoked bonito flakes, the stock gets more enriched.

If you are a vegetarian, please check out Kombu Dashi and Shiitake Dashi recipes.

If you don’t have time and make a quick dashi using instant dashi powder or dashi packet, click here to see the instructions.

Although the preparation may be slightly different for each family and restaurant, the basic principle is pretty much the same.  I hope today’s post will help you become more familiar with Japanese culinary adventure.  Here’s a quick video I’ve prepared to show you how to make dashi.

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Dashi Recipe
 
Prep time
Cook time
Total time
 
Author:
Serves: 3½ cups
Ingredients
  • 0.7 oz (20 g or 4" x 5") kombu
  • 3 cups (30 g) packed katsuobushi (dried bonito flakes)
  • 4 cups (1000 ml) water (or 8 cups - see Note)
You will also need:
  • A sieve
  • Paper towel
    How To Make Dashi Ingredients
Instructions
  1. Gently clean the kombu with a damp cloth without removing the white powdery "umami" substances. Do not wash the kombu!
    Kombu Dashi 1
  2. Make a couple of slits on the kombu.
    Kombu Dashi 2
  3. Put the kombu and water in a saucepan. If you have time, soak for 3 hours or up to half day. kombu’s flavor comes out naturally from soaking in water. If you don’t have time, skip this process.
    Dashi 3
  4. Slowly bring to a boil over medium low heat, skimming the surface occasionally.
    Dashi 4
  5. Just before boiling (you will see bubbles around the edges of the pan), remove the kombu and keep it for "Niban Dashi" (see Note). If you leave the kombu inside, the dashi will become slimy and bitter.
    Dashi 5
  6. Turn off the heat to let the dashi cool down a bit.
    Dashi 6
  7. Add the katsuobushi and bring it to a boil again, skimming occasionally.
  8. Once the dashi is boiling, reduce the heat, simmer for just 30 seconds, and turn off the heat.
    Dashi 8
  9. Let the katsuobushi sink to the bottom, about 10 minutes.
    Dashi 9
  10. Strain the dashi through a sieve lined with a paper towel set over a bowl.
    Dashi 10
  11. Gently twist and squeeze the paper towel to release the extra dashi into the bowl. Keep katsuobushi for "Niban Dashi" (see Note).
    Dashi 11
  12. If you are not using the dashi right away, save it in a bottle and keep in the refrigerator for 3-7 days or in the freezer for 3 weeks.
    Dashi 12
  13. Save the drained katsuobushi and kombu to make homemade Furikake (rice seasoning).
    Mentsuyu 7
Notes
If you don't need strong dashi flavor, you can replace 4 cups of water with 8 cups.

"Niban Dashi": It means second dashi and it is light dashi using leftover kombu and bonito flakes from "Ichiban Dashi" you just made.

1. In a pot, put 4 cups of water and leftover kombu and bonito flakes used in Ichiban Dashi and bring it to a boil over high heat.

2. Lower the heat and cook for 10 minutes while skimming.

3. Add additional .18 oz (5 grams) of bonito flakes and turn off the heat.

4. Let the bonito flakes sink to the bottom and strain the dashi through the sieve.

Recipe by Namiko Chen of Just One Cookbook. All images and content on this site are copyright protected. Please do not use my images without my permission. If you’d like to share this recipe on your site, please re-write the recipe and link to this post as the original source. Thank you.

 

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  1. Yes! Thanks Nami. I can cook all things American, including even some Italian and a some French recipes, but Japanese is so intimidating for me. This is just perfect for a beginner like myself. Thanks for sharing!

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  2. Nami, this is fantastic. I usually make really basic stocks, but nothing compared to this level of complexity. Thanks to Jap grocers here, and I am sure I will be able to find these ingredients. However, I have never used Dashi stock before. What soups would you recommend? I was thinking something along the lines of seafood? I LOVE Jap food but seriously can’t cook this cuisine :). Hope all is well!! ♥ ♥ Jo

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  3. I see dashi in a lot of recipes so I love that you showed us how to make it. It’s looks great. :) Looking forward to checking out the vegetarian version too. :)

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  4. I love the dashi we are served at Japanese restaurants & now glad you taught us how to make it at home. Love to hear you talk about ‘umami’, the special flavor! Did you know I have a friend in Manila who wrote a book on ‘umami’ in collaboration with a Japanese food company? What a terrific topic! Thanks for sharing this recipe, Nami!

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  5. Love this! I”ve used instant dashi but that does not seem like a good thing to do!!I don’t think I can get it in town right now anyway. I love making miso soup so this will be so nice!! I am quite interested in the veggie dashi too! Thanks once again, Nami!

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    • Thanks for checking How To Make Sushi Rice page, Belinda! Rice wine is not vinegar, so rice vinegar is absolutely necessary for making authentic sushi rice. Different kinds of vinegar won’t work for sushi. Hope this helps. :)

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  6. I remember when we cooked from Japan a while back that a lot of recipes called for dashi. I wish I would have known your site back then! Perhaps we’ll just have to redo some of the recipes and give this a try. I love your detailed how-to’s. They make things that would otherwise seem difficult, not so intimidating. :)

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  7. Wow!!! I have a lot of kombu at home (left over from our Sushi Sunday) and this would be a great thing to make using them. :) Now, all I have to find is a cheese cloth…I don’t know where to find that here in HK! :( Thanks for sharing Nami!! I always look forward to your shared recipes. :)

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  8. The reason I seldom cook Japanese food is because my pantry is lack of basic Japanese ingredients. Looks like I should start by making dashi – which means I need to stock up on kombu and bonito flakes soon.

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  9. Nami, you can never really stress the importance of mastering the basics enough! I am glad that the few ingredientsrequired for the preparation of Dashi are available at my Asian market and although I have made Dashi before, I will certainly make it again using your recipe – I am trying to work on my Japanese cooking skills and with your more than helpful recipes, I am sure that I will be able to hone my cooking skills. Love the color of that clean and “pure” stock and I particularly enjoyed the photography today.

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  10. It’s really that simple? I always thought it involved a complicated cooking method or some very exotic ingredients, but I am glad that its that easy. Thank you for sharing your step by step pictures, they are going to come very handy Nami!

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  11. This is fascinating Nami. You’ve described how to make this so well and the uses for it. It’s always so much nicer to be able to make foods from scratch that get used often rather than purchasing them. Great detailed instructions, you make it all look quite simple. Thank you for sharing.

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  12. Hi Nami
    I loves Japanese food but I am no good in cooking it but I can always come to you for tips and reference. And I am lucky too that I can browse thru your tutorial pics.

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  13. i’ve been meaning to make dashi for the dipping sauce for zaru soba.. but never gotten round to it ^^|| even with all the ingredients ready! gotta check if they are still usable. thanks for sharing this.. and a zaru soba recipe in 2011 too ^^

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  14. Your dashi has an amazing colour! Mine is never so beautifully yellow! Anyway, I couldn’t live without home-made dashi. I have been making it for at least a year and when I recently tasted instant one, I couldn’t believe how different it was from mine.
    I also make niban dashi (but apart from the “old” I add some new katsuobushi to the second dashi too) and I keep both for about 4 days in the fridge. I think it starts getting sour after a week only, if I keep in the coldest part of the fridge…

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    • Sissi, this is for GOOD dashi. I normally double the water (8 cups) for my daily use, so it’s less yellow. Still very good though. :) Yeah instant one is okay if you need only a bit of dashi flavor, but I wouldn’t recommend for something that requires good dashi flavor like Miso Soup, Chawanmushi, Nimono…etc. :)

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  15. Mike19

    Hi Nami,

    loving your cookbook! it really did become my “one cookbook” when it comes to Japanese. Now I have a question regarding dashi, maybe you can help clear this up:
    What is the difference between Aragatsuo, Katsuobushi, Karebushi, Kezuribushi, Kezurikatsuo and Hanakatsuo?

    I think Katsuobushi is the word for the complete wood-like dried Katsuo, not the shavings because these are karebushi? Or are they?

    Cheers,
    Mike

    42
    • Hi Mike! I’m happy to hear you enjoy my blog! And thanks for the question! You know very details about bonito flakes!

      First of all, I think “Aragatsuo” you mean is a different thing. Ara = head and gatsuo = katsuo, and there is a dish called “Katsuo no Ara ni (鰹のあら煮)”. It’s a simmered dish and not dried bonito flakes.

      “Katsuobushi 鰹節” refer to a whole block of dried and smoked meat or shaved one. But “Kezuribushi 削り節” only refers to shaved katuobushi (kezuri means “shaved”). People generally use the term katsuobushi or kezuribushi for bonito flakes.

      Katsuobushi has different names depends on how it’s processed.

      * Namaribushi 生利節 (boiled and dried only)
      * Arabushi 荒節 (smoked after boiled and dried)
      * Karebushi 枯節 (mature by deliberately planting fungus to reduce moisture), and
      * Honkarebushi 本枯節 (even more matured and most expensive kind).

      Hanakatsuo 花鰹 is katsuobushi (but precisely kezuribushi) that’s shaved like “hana” (flower). There are different names for how it’s shaved.

      Hope this helps. Maybe Google can answer your question better. :)

      By the way, the email got bounced back. I hope you see my response here.

      44
      • Mike19

        Many thanks!

        Let me see if I understand this correctly 😉

        Namaribushi, Arabushi, Karebushi and Honkarebushi are different production steps of Katsuobushi. For example if you have “arabushi” and then plant fungus into it, it becomes “karebushi”.

        Now when people use the term “kezuribushi”, does this refer to shaved flakes of Namaribushi, Arabushi, Karebushi or Honkarebushi? Are there other specific words for shavings of, say, Karebushi as opposed to Arabushi?

        When buying katsuobushi flakes, what kind of shaving would you recommend? Probably there are more thick/coarse cuts for making dashi, and probably when topping agedashidofu you would use hanakatsuo?

        ok… this is getting very, very specific :)

        Cheers!

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        • Hi Mike,

          Yes, the first part is right.

          Glad you asked – I had to check.

          Katsuobushi Kezuribushi (鰹節削り節) is shaved Karebushi or Honkarebushi. Of course more expensive.

          Katsuo Kezuribushi (鰹削り節) is shaved Arabushi (no fungus). Less flavor but cheaper. It’s generally used for dashi at home (so that we can use a lot, I guess). This is the general “Katsuobushi” when you talk about bonito flakes. Hana Katsuo is categorized here.

          I like using big flakes (Hana Katsuo) for dashi instead of small flakes which I use for Agedashi tofu (but of course preference). For Okonomiyaki I like bigger flakes too.

          Hope this helps. Glad you got my email/response. :)

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          • Mike19

            Again, many thanks!

            By the way, I don’t know if you want to publish this (commercial and all) but you should check out http://www.fushitaka.com/ I can’t really understand it, it’s only Japanese, but they appear to have a spectacular variety of Katsuobushi.

            50
            • Thanks for the link! Yes they even have other fish’s kezuribushi besides katsuo. I sometimes wish that I could get these good ingredients here!

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  16. Candice

    Hi Nami,

    For the kombu, if I don’t have time to soak it for 3 hours – half day, do I just skip this proceess and just boil the kombu?

    Thanks.

    51
    • Hi Vij! Yes, we can replace chicken stock with dashi for a lot of dishes (not all) :) Maybe the easiest way to guess is that if you use soy sauce or other Asian seasonings, you can definitely use dashi. However, it’s not meant for western food – I think flavor is a bit strange. Hope this helps. :)

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  17. Great post! I have made dashi, but I confess it’s not something I make often. I should change that – it’s easy to do, and has such great flavor. Looking forward to your vegetarian dashi! Really good stuff – thanks.

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  18. Visiting your blog is always, always a good thing. Not only I am getting all the delicious recipes that you have, I am also getting free education on Japanese cuisines. Thank you, Nami. I always appreciate these informative posts from you. :)

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  19. Hi Nami! I actually just last week bought dashi from a Japanese supermarket, but I guess I must have bought the pre-made stuff since it’s just called ‘dashi stock’? Anyway, just thought I should let you know that I love the flavour! I was wondering what I could add it to, I know people say its used in udon soup but is there anything else? And do I need to also get mirin?

    Thanks! :)

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  20. Ohhh yum :) I had no idea that this was how you made dashi :) I have always just used the powder and even though I know it’s not as tasty, it is very easy hehe

    I just hope I will be able to find the ingredients and try at home~

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  21. I’ve seen so many of your recipes that call for dashi but since it’s not something I use a lot, I really didn’t know what it was except for a type of stock. So I thank you for this recipe and tutorial on how to make it! It’s just what I needed! I make all kinds of stock so why not dashi? YAY! It’s going to be harder to get the ingredients than to make this. :) Actually, just a trip to the Asian market.

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  22. This is so helpful. I’ve been using store bough Dashi as I don’t really use them that often. But it’s so easy to make. I really have no excuse to buy them again! hahaaha….Thanks for the recipe, Nami. :)

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  23. Thank you for sharing, Nami! I love “back to basics” recipes and I’ve always wanted to make dashi since it is in quite a few recipes I’d like to try. Your photos and directions are always so helpful!

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    • Hi Ginny! Yes, in Japan dashi is introduced to baby as early as 8 months old. Start from diluted version to make sure your baby has no allergy and flavor is not too strong. You can use kombu dashi (vegetarian), too. :)

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  24. Winter is a perfect time for stocks. Some people make it from mushrooms, some from chicken, of course. To me your stock is very exotic, I would love to try it. Very bright color, and I love it-)

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  25. Diana

    Thanks for the recipe! I usually cheat by using in the bottle dashi concentrate, my bf turned me on to it. This will be nice when I want to do more formal meals.

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    • Thank you Diana! I usually use dashi packet (like a tea bag) for my daily use which is really quick and easy. But when I need a lot of dashi for 1-2 dishes, I always make it from scratch. Thank you for your feedback! :)

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  26. Jan

    Hi, I recently visited Nagano Prefecture and dinned at a small soba restaurant where I had cold soba with a black sesame soup. The soup must have been made from either white or black sesame paste as it had a cloudy look to it and a slight tahini taste. I can’t remember if the paste was at the bottom of the bowl and I added the dashi/soy liquid from the little pouring bottle, or if it was all in together from the beginning. Out of all the soba meals I enjoyed this was the best! Do you know how to make this dish, and would you be willing to share it? Jan

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  27. Beth

    I bought aokizami kombu to make dashi. The store was out of the plain kombu. Do I still use 20 grams? Is there anything I should know about using that type of kombu? Is it stronger since it is shredded?

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    • Hi Beth! I’ve never used kizami kombu to make dashi before but it’s supposedly just shredded version of kombu. We usually use kizami kombu for simmered dishes as ingredients, just never heard someone tried it for making dashi. Is it more expensive? 20g is a lot to make dashi? It seems like shredded one will give more flavor because it’s cut surface… maybe try with 10-15g? What do you think? Sorry I can’t be much of help here..

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  28. Wendy

    Hi! This recipe looks great.

    I was wondering — if I soak it for 3 hours, does this mean when I boil it I don’t keep the kombu in the pot? So after 3 hours, I just take it out and then add the flakes?

    Sorry I am not good at this!

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    • Hi Wendy! Thank you for asking. :) You soak for 3 hrs, and keep the kombu inside the water. Then when the water is about to boil, take out the kombu. Please feel free to ask me if you have any question. :)

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  29. Ra ru fu

    Nomikosan. When you used the word UMAMI. What does that word mean?

    Dashi provides great umami from all these ingredients and you don’t need to season the food much if you have good dashi.

    106
    • Hi Rarufu!

      Besides the familiar tastes of sweet, salty, bitter and sour, there is a fifth taste we can perceive with our tongue, and that we call “umami”. Like fatty meats like steak, aged cheese, really complex broth from fresh ingredients… those are the “umami”.

      You can read a little bit more about it on wiki for details.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umami

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      • YLK

        On the “How to Make Dashi Stock” page, it says that Iriko Dashi recipe is coming soon. I’m really interested and looking forward to that recipe using dried baby sardines. There is no comment section on that page so I comment here.

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        • Hi YLK! Thank you for your request. I’ve been meaning to make the post, but haven’t had a chance yet. I’ll mark as higher priority in my lists of recipes to try. Thanks! :)

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  30. Kelley Niiyama

    Hi, Nami! I am starting my life as a Japanese housewife (after 11 years of marriage!) and am finding your website unbelievably helpful for my kitchen endeavors!! You have already helped me impress my in-laws (visiting from Japan) with your recipe for namasu (many, many thanks!).

    I have a question about the Niban dashi and furikake – do I have to choose between the two, or can I make the Niban dashi then make the furikake (from the same ingredients)?

    110
    • Hi Kelley! Happy New Year! I’m so happy to hear you made namasu and your in-laws enjoyed it. :)

      You can make furikake after nibandashi. You add seasonings to kombu and katsuobushi, so you can use kombu and katsuobushi after making nibandashi to make furikake. Hope that helps!

      111
    • Hi Sillkie! Small bubbles and some particles floating on the surface (if there is any). Most of it it should be pretty clean, and a tiny bit of bubbles. :)

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  31. Dalila

    Hi Nami,

    Do you have a recipe for the iriko dashi? I’m interested in learning that one to make kitsune udon. I enjoyed this dashi very much! I really prefer making things from scratch :)
    Thank you,
    Dalila

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  32. Dee R.

    Is it possible to make dashi using a bonito powder? I have this korean stock powder that has bonito and anchovy. Will it work?

    117
    • Hi John! I’m not familiar with Japanese grocery stores in Manila, but if you can find one (maybe in the city where many Japanese expats live), you should be able to find all the ingredients for making dashi as it’s the basic items for Japanese cooking. Korean uses kombu (kelp) and anchovies for making stock as well, so you can easily find in Korean supermarkets. Hope this helps. :)

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  33. Stephen

    Is $9 expensive for 100 grams of hanakatsuo? I got the ninben brand of hanaktasuo kezuribushi from my local Korean supermarket. If that’s a reasonable price in the US, this is much more expensive than the tennen dashi sachets/teabags, which are $4 for 8 sachets. The homemade dashi would be >$3 for 3.5 cups, whereas the sachets are $.50 for 3.5 cups, meaning homemade is 6-7 times as expensive…

    121
    • Hi Stephen! I forgot how much hanakatsuo cost in the Japanese supermarket I go to… I need to check, but I don’t think it cost that much. I usually use dashi packet for my regular day-to-day dishes for convenience, but in your case yes, yeah it’s more expensive to make homemade dashi!

      A lot of people can’t find the dashi packet that we use (I really hope this will become more popular than dashi powder with MSG) and they have no choice but making dashi from scratch. I still think my homemade dashi tastes much better than those dashi packet. :)

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  34. Vrenn

    The dish I’m currently making is Udon, and the bowls that i need to fill are about two cups each. How much of the ingredients would I have to us to make enough Dashi for a group of six people? Would I just double the amount that you currently have listed at the top?

    123
    • Hi Vrenn! This dashi recipe yields 3 1/2 cups.

      You’ll need 12 cups of dashi, so you need to make 3 to 4 times. If you make a basic Udon noodle soup base such as this recipe (http://www.justonecookbook.com/recipes/kitsune-udon/), there are other condiments like soy sauce and mirin added to dashi to make udon soup. So I think you just need to make 3 times more than this recipe.

      But if you are going to use “8 cups” just like I mentioned in Note section, then yeah double the recipe, and you should be good!

      Hope this helps!

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  35. matt

    Great job! Is there any way to create an instant dashi powder from these raw ingredients? Like maybe grind the 2 ingredients and then add them to water later? Any ideas? Thanks

    125
    • Hi Matt! Thank you so much. Hmmm even though you grind the raw ingredients, I think the powders/granules won’t be completely dissolved. So you will have to strain it. In that case, it makes more sense to make a tea bag dashi packet. That way after you boiled the dashi packet, you can pick it up and throw away. In Japanese supermarkets, there are meshed tea bag (disposable). A lot of people make their own dashi packet using those tea bag. Hope this helps. :)

      126
    • Hi Jenna! If you don’t have kombu, you can still make Katsuobushi (bonito flakes) based dashi. There is no substitute for kombu, so you will be just making “Katsuo Dashi” with just bonito flakes. Follow the same directions (minus kombu part). :)

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  36. Carolyn Orbach

    Forgive me if you’ve already answered this! I skimmed the comments but did not see where anyone has inquired of you the name of a legitimate online supplier of the ingredients Kombu and Bonito Flakes. I live 57 country miles outside the great & sophisticated city of Cleveland, where there exists “real” Japanese grocers which I’d love to visit. I can go to Cleveland. In about four weeks! I need Miso soup now!!! Please help me, Nami! If anyone reading this knows of such a site, please let me know. Respectfully….

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    • We do make dashi with dried shrimp but we use it for certain dishes that goes well with strong shrimp flavor. Not meant for all dishes that require dashi. :)

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  37. Tiffany

    I have a question. I’ve been wanting to make dashi from scratch for a long time. I just got back from the Asian market and I just noticed that the bonito flakes that I bought say “smoked and dried”. Is that the same thing or did I buy the wrong package? Sorry, I know it’s a stupid question but I’m very new to Asian cooking, i don’t really know what I’m doing yet.

    135
    • Hi Def! Without cooking in seasonings, kombu can be very plain and not much taste to it. How do you want to serve the leftover kombu in ramen?

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  38. Nami,

    Thank you for this recipe!

    It might seem a bit strange…but I’m actually making dashi for my cat. I feed him commercial frozen raw food (from Nature’s Variety; ground rabbit or duck or chicken, complete with organs and bones plus a small bit of other stuff), and I serve it (thawed, of course) with twice as much liquid as food to make sure he stays very well hydrated. I had been using warm tap water plus a small spoonful of Trader Joe’s “Tuna for Cats” canned food…but then I discovered that he goes absolutely nuts for katsuobushi and so I’m using your dashi instead — which he also loves. He licks the bowl clean and dry!

    I have a question, though…for niban dashi, should the kombu be removed once it reaches a boil just as for ichiban dashi, or do you leave the kombu in for the whole ten minutes of simmering?

    Thanks,

    b&

    139
    • Hi Ben! Definitely one of interesting comments I have received! :) Your cat is very lucky and it seems like he eats very well! Just like Ichiban Dashi, I recommend taking kombu out before boiling. Kombu makes the broth bitter and slimy and it’s not neccesary. However, you can leave it out in water for a longer time, or cook the water with kombu slowly to get maximum flavor. There are lots of stories in Japan that cats go crazy with katsuobushi. It made me smile to hear your story.

      140
      • Thanks for the clarification! I just made another batch this afternoon, and he licked his lunch bowl clean again so I still must be doing something right. And the last batch made some really, really good miso soup for me….

        I can easily believe the stories of Japanese cats that go crazy for katsuobushi. Baihu’s reaction to it is almost embarrassing in how desperately excited he gets in just the time it takes to get it out of the bag to when he can reach it in my hands. I imagine there must be quite a few very lucky cats in Japan, what with all the katsuobushi, dashi, and fresh seafood there. I’m sure not all cats eat as well as their humans…but those who do must think they’re in heaven.

        b&

        141
        • Hi Ben! Does your cat like the leftover katsuobushi from making dashi? Or all the flavor is out and he doesn’t like it? I didn’t think too much about it, but yeah cats in Japan must be so happy eating all kinds of seafood meals. :)

          142
          • Alas, he doesn’t. Nor does he like katsuobushi sprinkled on top of a bowl of food and liquid…I suspect the texture is a big part of the draw and the mushiness of soggy katsuobushi doesn’t seem to appeal to him.

            But the flavor of the dashi definitely does…if I give him just plain water with his food, he only eats the food and leaves whatever water he isn’t forced to get by eating the food. And he might get fussy and wait a while before deigning to eat. But with dashi? No more than a minute or three after I set the bowl down and it’s licked clean!

            …time to make another batch….

            b&

            143
            • Thank you for your answer, Ben! I guess the texture of the food is very important even for a cat. :) I’m so happy to hear your cat enjoy dashi! It’s really a cute story. 😀 Thank you!!

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